The basic meaning is wealth in the sense of money or currency. Cattle were a measuring of one's wealth. Fee, a payment, comes from this term. as a distribution of wealth as does fellowship and friendship, wealth of another kind.
Fehu (GMC) property, cattle Faihu (GO) cattle, property or wealth Foeh (OE) cattle, or money Fe (ON) livestock or money Sound: f
The auroch was a wild ox, very large and very fierce, in description it sounds very much like the Longhorn. Uruz is associated with the primal creative force, primitive, earliest or original. The German ursprache used linguistically to refer to "original sounds." In the Oxford English Dictionary Ur also refers to the unarticulated sound which would also be apt. It is also an archaic form of "our."
GMC Uraz the auroch GO Urus the auroch OE Ur ox, bison ON Ur drizzle, rain Primal force, strength. Sound: u, v oo
Thurisaz is a force of defense and destruction. "Bramble" or thorny bushes were used to "fence" and protect boundaries. One form of Norse/Germanic execution was to throw criminals "into thorns". Thor is the god that protects sacred enclosures in much the same way that the thorny hawthorne, blackthorn, or rose does. It is the thicket that protected Sleeping Beauty's castle, the hedge that surrounded sacred enclosures.
GMC Thurisaz The strong one, giant GO Thuith The good one OE Thorn Thorn ON Thurs Giant Phonetic value: _th_ as in "thorn" Asa-Thorr, the enemy of unfriendly forces. Thorn on a branch or Thor's hammer
This is the rune of inspired speech and incantation as a creative expression. It is is linked with the ancestors, the magic of speech which passes along knowledge with the breath of life, the passing of knowledge through the spoken word, as differentiated from the written.
GMC ansuz: a god, ancestral god GO ansus: a runic god name OE os: a god ON ass: a god, AEsir ansur a mouth or the mouth of a river Phonetic value Windblown cloak, Odhinn, inspired speech
Rhythm and movement are important to the concept of Raidho. The sound and dance of the estatic traveler who is carried on a circular journey. The spiral journey of the sun on it's annual course from North to South and back, as in the journey of Nerthus and Freyr's processions. It is the wheeling of stars around the cosmic axis. It can be thought of as the chariot of Thor or Freya or any other cosmic "transportation." As the chariot is primal forces controled by conscious thought.
GMC raidho wagon GO raidha wagon, ride OE radh a riding, way ON reidh riding, chariot rad/raed wheel/vehicle Phonetic value "r" A cosmic chariot, solar chariot, the wheel of stars A chariot of a god or goddess Estatic journey
The Gothic and Old Norse names are "secondary" according to Thorsson, internal fire, inflammation, etc. The terms were drawn from rune poems.
GMC kenaz torch GO kusma swelling OE cen torch ON kaun sore, boil kaunaz
Gebo represents hospitality, generousity and giving. It is the joining of giver and the one who receives. As Thorsson points out in Futhark: A Handbook of Rune Magic it also has the meaning of a gift from the Deities, particularly through union. He relates the gift to the wisdom received by the hero from the valkyrja.
GMC gebo gift, hospitality GO giba gift OE gyfu gift, generousity ON gipt gift, wedding gifu Phoenetic sound "g" as in "gift." Exchanged gifts
Happiness and joy, glory. The battle well-fought and won. A wand. Prosperity and good fellowship. Peacefullness.
GMC wunjo: joy GO winja: pasture OE wynn: pleasure, delight ON vend: (a rune name) joy, hope (Not in the younger row) Phonetic value: w
The Anglo-Saxon rune poem refers to "hail" as being "grain" which falls and turns into water after being tossed about by wind. The layered nature of a hailstone was recognized, as well as the potential for destruction and the transformative qualities. The concepts that surround Hagalaz recognize that the destructive potential for hail out of season is balanced by the potential for transformation that will bring new fertility and growth.
GMC Hagalaz hail, egg (?) GO Hagl hail OE Haegl hail ON Hagall hail Phoentic value: "h"
Naudhiz is another of the cosmic forces which is recognized as being a "shaping" power which form the fates of the world and mankind. It is associated with the Nornir who are the "shapers." In the rune poems it represents the layerd concept of necessity providing the friction that leads to transformation. It represents the fire bow which engenders the "need-fire."
GMC Naudhiz need GO Nauths necessity, need OE Nyd need, distress ON Naudh(r) distress, need, constraint Phonetic value "n"
It is the primal ice, the icy stream (or glacier) that flows from Niflheimr. Is is an "elemental" rune. It's form can be seen in nearly all of the other runes. It is associated with the rime-giants, the hrimthursar and the wisdom of age. Ice can be considered "static" as many do, however, ice whether one is speaking of the rune or of actual ice is a mysterious substance. Isa can bring things to a halt, or place something in suspension. But the mysterious flow of the glacier is also inherent in Isa, as it is realted to the primal stream. Ice can also be an expansive force, or one that crushes anything caught in its grasp.
GMC Isa ice GO Eis ice OE Is ice ON Iss ice Phonetic value: "i" as in "ee" (deed).
It is the completion of a cycle, a season, or a year, representing the dymanic rotation and changes of the cycles. It is the fruitful completion of a cycle, or the eternal contrast of opposites which provide a whole. It is invoked for a good season (or harvest) and is associated with fertility. The Old Norse name ar is similar to 'ari' which is the ON word for eagle, a solar symbol.
GMC Jera the (good) year, harvest GO Jer year OE Ger year ON Ar year, (good) season Phonetic value: 'j' or 'y' as in 'yard'
Eihwas represents the spinning World Tree, Yggdrasil. It is the axis about which all else revolves and spins out of. It contains the mystery of life and death. It is a life giving force which has its roots in the Underworld and death. The yew is a powerful stave of protection and banishing, not only because of its association with the forces of life and death, but because of its association with the bow made of yew wood.
GMC Eihwaz or iwaz yew tree GO Eihwas yew tree OE Eoh or eow yew tree or mountain ash ON ihwar yew (in runic inscription only) Phonetic value is uncertain, "e/i"
Pertho is one of the mysteries of the runes. As a container with the lots of life, pertho represents the vagaries of chance which can not be controlled. However the pieces fall, the player must move boldly taking what is cast and make up for in skill and wisdom any lack in the casting itself. It contains the mystery of the Nornic runes. It is the rune of the vitki, the one who seeks the mysteries of the cosmos through the understanding of synchronicity. It is the rune of the warrior who constantly tests himself against chance and luck.
GMC perthro device for casting lots GO pairthra dice cup OE peordh chess man (gaming piece) ON * (Not in Norse futhark) Phonetic value: 'p'
The Old English name, "elk-sedge" is a kenning for sword. It represents a two-edged blade. It can be seen as the godhi or gydhja in the attitude of addressing or invoking the gods. Thorsson gives the esoteric interpretation of the name as the protective forse, valkyrijur. It can represent the splayed hand, the horns of the elk, a swan in flight, a divergance or convergence of paths or forces. It is a sign used to promote victory and protection.
Germanic name: Elhaz, elk; or algiz, protection.
The S-rune is that of the sun, part of the solar wheel. Both the words "sol" and "sunna" for the sun in Old Norse are feminine in nature as were the cosmic forces represented by the sun. It is the counterforce to Isa, or the cosmic ice. The S-rune is often connected to the lightning bolt, or a flash of inspiration or ecstacy.
GMC Sowilo Sun GO Saugil Sun OE Sigil Sun ON Sol Sun Phonetic value "s"
Ideographically, it represents the vault of heaven intersepted by the world tree or axis. A spear point, or arrow. The pole star.
GMC Tiwaz the god Tyr GO Teiws the god Tyr OE Tir the god Tyr (OE Tiw) glory ON Tyr the god Tyr Phonetic value: 't"
The B-rune is related to the Great Mother, the Earth Goddes. It is the mother of manifestation and of birth and rebirth. The birch tree was often planted before a home to protect it in Scandinavian countries, and the custom continued to be observed in America where settlers built new homes.
GMC Berkano, birch, the birch goddess, birch twigs GO bairkan birch twig OE beorc birch tree ON bjarkan runic birch goddess (from ON bjork: birch) Phoenetic value: "b"
Ehwo is associated with "twin" gods or heroes, the divine twins, or two horses. The Saxon conquers of Britain were Hengist and Horsa (stallion and horse). It is the harmonious relationship between two forces. The ehwas was connected closely to the concept of a man's fetch, the "horse" that carries one on the journey between worlds. It is the rune of Sleipnir. With its close connection to the horse it is also a symbol of fertility, and partnerships.
GMC ehwas horse, or ehwo: the "two" horses GO aihwas stallion OE eh war horse ON ior horse (not found in Younger Futhark) Phonetic value "e"
The Old English Rune Poem says: (Mann) is in his mirth dear to his kinsman; although each shall depart from the other. It is a rune of the human existence, of which life and death are both part. It is the rune of mortality. It also represents interdependence and support, as well as duty and responsiblity. No individual is independent of others, each is part of a larger pattern.
GMC Mannaz Human, mankind GO Manna Man, Human OE Mann Man, Human ON Madhr A Human being Phonetic value "m"
The sea and other bodies of water, like the earth, were considered a source of wealth and fertility and an expression of the unconscious and undiscovered mysteries of life and death. The Aegir, the gods and goddesses of the sea, both gave and took life and offered fertility and wealth. They were the brewers and the Norse looked at the foaming vat of beer and related it to froth of the ocean.
GMC laguz a body of water (or laukaz: leek) GO lagus water OE lagu sea, water ON logr sea, water (or laukr: leek) law, (ON log) Phonetic value "l"
Ing is associated with Nerthus as well as Ing. The circuit of the wagon that was associated with their respective worship represented the "king's circuit", the walking of the bounds, or the circuit of the sacred wagon which insured fertility to the land.
GMC ingwaz the god Ing GO enguz or iggws the god Ing, a man OE Ing the god or the hero, Ing ON Ing, or Yngvi the god Ing (a title of Freyr) Phonetic value "ng" as in "long"
Dagaz refers to the a day, a period of darkness and light, since the Norse counted their days from evening to evening, with the mid-point being dawn and the rising of the sun. It is the rune of awakening, and metaphorically, rebirth.
GMC dagaz day GO dags day OE daeg day ON dogr day (not in Younger Futhark) Phonetic value "d" and voiced "th" as in "then"
Othala is the rune of the sacred enclosure, the homeland, the village, the homestead. It is the family group, its customs, lands and language as well as the duties and responsiblities that go along with maintaining family ties.
GMC othala ancestral property GO othal property OE ethel homeland, property ON odhal nature, inborn quality (not in Younger Futhark)
Hail to whoever spoke them, hail to whoever knows them! Gain they who grasp them, happy they who heed them! The Sayings of Har - str 163